In a unit about until and by in the PEU says:
We use until to talk about situation or state that will continue up to a certain moment. We use by to say that an action or event happen at or before a future moment.
Are there formal differences between state and action? I think when we talk about something we can refer to state as perhaps longer action and to an event say that an action is shorter regarding to the longer action. So I suppose we always talk about these two action together. It is true?