The OP of https://english.stackexchange.com/q/168882/17712 claims that:

"In conclusion" is common, while "by way of conclusion" is quite formal.

Is that true, or do “by way of conclusion" and "In conclusion" have the same level of formality?

For sure "In conclusion" is more common though:

Google Ngram Viewer: by way of conclusion vs. in conclusion:

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  • By way of conclusion is flatulent.
    – TimR
    Oct 21, 2014 at 20:34
  • @TRomano Agreed, I get the feeling that the author had some kind of personal bias towards the phrase "by way of conclusion" and felt like injecting it into their work. I've never heard or seen it before in my life, and it seems unnecessary.
    – Crazy Eyes
    Oct 21, 2014 at 21:49

1 Answer 1


We have similar phrases, including by way of introduction and by way of summary. These are not a matter of formality but of an author's style.

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