I wouldn't say that your question is wrong, necessarily, just that it implies something different than if you changed the word order.
The book is on the table?
If I heard this, I would interpret it as a surprised remark checking the veracity of a statement. For example:
A: Where's the calculus book we need for the test tomorrow?
B: Jimmy left it on the table.
A: The book is on the table? Why wouldn't he just put it back on the shelf?
Which all boils down to: "The book is on the table? [I expected the book to be somewhere else]." I was looking for the book and couldn't find it, but I definitely didn't expect to find it on the table. This is also a rhetorical question, which is a question to which you already know the answer. You've already been told the book is on the table; you're expressing surprise at this discovery. You're not really looking for more information.
Now if you invert the word order, you get:
Is the book on the table?
The implication here is that I'm looking for the book, am not sure where it is, but have a guess that it might be on the table. So I'm checking to see if it is in fact on the table before I go look for it there (and before I search other places). I actually want information in this case, and could expect a response such as:
No, you left the book in the car, remember?
Yes, I put it there an hour ago!