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Background: In psychology, there are two classification methods of emotion (discrete classification and continuous classification), since emotion are universal of human being. But in the study of attitude, we could not classfy attitudes in the way of classifying emotion, since different countries owns its unique attitude categories.

Now here are the questions:

  1. Should I insert a comma before "since" in the sentence below?

  2. Should I use the term "emotion" or "emotions"?

  3. Is there anything not idiomatic in the sentence below?

This is the example sentence:

However, it is hard to use the classification methods of the researches for emotions to study attitudes since attitudes relate closely to cultures, which may differ a lot across cultures.

  • There is no ironclad rule about whether a comma is necessary before since in your sentence or any other sentence. The main thing to aim for is clarity and readability. Do you think a comma should go there? Why or why not? Is the sentence easier to read and understand with or without one? As for the other questions, I consider them general proofreading, which is off-topic. And having someone correct your mistakes for you leads to little long-term improvement of your writing. – user6951 Oct 30 '14 at 4:15
  • Also note that research is uncountable. – Damkerng T. Oct 30 '14 at 8:05
2

I don't think we need a comma before since. When since is used as a conjunction to mean "because" at the beginning of a sentence, we use a comma at the end of this dependent clause. However, it's not necessary to put a comma before since when this dependent clause starts after the main clause.

We are not referring to a particular emotion. Instead, we are referring to all type of emotions. So we must use "emotions".

I don't think there is anything unnatutal or non idiomatic in the sentence in question.

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It is possible (and even common) to add a comma after the introductory word 'however' and before the conjunctions 'since' and 'which'. However, as suggested by CarSmack, in none of these cases is a comma obligatory; here commas just serve to clarify meaning, so there are no hard-and-fast rules. So, what to advise? Your sentence is neither very short (in which case commas would be unnecessary and a distraction) nor very long (in which case several commas would probably be needed), so don't worry too much, and add commas where they feel right. [Khan is right about it being unnecessary to put a comma between main and dependent clauses, but feel free to add one nevertheless, if it feels right.]

Regarding 'emotion' or 'emotions', your phrase "the classification ... emotions" seems grammatically correct, but is certainly not idiomatic. First, the definite article 'the' is better dropped since you are making a general assertion. Second, 'research' is one of those odd words that appears only in the singular in English ('equipment' is another). Third, 'for' is not the right preposition. A minimal re-write would be, "However, it is hard to use the classification methods of research into emotions ...". Even better, the preceding sentence talks about emotion classifications and their universality, so it should be possible to say, "However, it is hard to use these classification methods to study attitudes...". This is more compact, which is another way to achieve clarity.

Finally, the phrase "which may differ a lot across cultures" could be improved. The repetition of the word 'cultures' is a sign that you should aim for a simpler and more compact re-write; also 'a lot' is not compatible with the very formal style expected in scientific writing. You have already established the proposition that emotions are universal rather than cultural, so it would be clearer to say '..., since they - unlike emotions - are strongly dependent on culture.'

Bottom line: "However it is hard to use these universal classification methods to study attitudes, since they - unlike emotions - are strongly dependent on culture."

That is 22 words instead of 30, and conforms to scientific idiom.

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I think the best option would be to paraphrase the sentence look at the following example

Emotions are universal of human being. In psychology,there are two classification methods of emotions (discrete classification and continuous one ), since emotion are universal But in the study of attitude, we could not classfy attitudes in the way of classifying emotion, since different countries owns its unique attitude categories.

in the first sentence with since you mentioned emotion are, but there is not svg ( subject verb agreement). the first use of since seems to be not clear. Thta is much better to reverse the sentece in order to be readible

The second sentence introduces something different there isa negative verb without the comma it one might think that tinknk that theer are other reasons of classification

hope this is helpful

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