1

Present Perfect.

Tom has studied Chapter One and he is begin to study Chapter Two.

Past Perfect.

Tom had studied Chapter one before he began studying Chapter Two.

Are "Tom has studied Chapter One" and "Tom had studied Chapter One" are complete sentences? Can we ignore "begin to study" in the sentences?

  • 1
    First example should be "beginning to study". – user3169 Nov 8 '14 at 2:46
  • You should include the phrases (without "begin to study") in your question so it is clear what you are asking. – user3169 Nov 8 '14 at 2:49
2

Tom has studied Chapter One.

Tom had studied Chapter One.

Both are possible as complete sentences. The first can stand alone in its own right, provided we know which first chapter is referred to. The second is possible only if some later past time-point/period is known to both speaker and addressee, or will be known very soon, as in:

Tom had studied Chapter One. He was bored, and thought he'd play a couple of video games before he tried Chapter Two

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