It's an awkward construction as worded, but I don't think it's technically incorrect.
Consider the sentence without it: "He doesn't care for us." Depending on context, that could mean that he is unconcerned about our welfare, as in, "He doesn't care what happens to us", or it could mean that he doesn't provide care, as in, "He doesn't feed us or wash out clothes."
In the second case, what if "he" has some indirect role in providing for your care, but doesn't personally do the job? In that case you might say, "He doesn't care for us himself, but he pays the nursing home bill."
Or if you mean the first case, lack of concern, you may want to emphasize that it is "he" who doesn't care, and not just people in general, of whom "he" is just one example. This would be another case where you could add "himself". "He doesn't care for us himself."
The only problem with the original sentence is the odd placement of the word "himself". In cases like this, we typically put it immediately after "he" -- "He himself doesn't care for us" -- or at the end of the sentence -- "He doesn't care for us himself."
I think the sentence as written is valid, just unusual.