This can indeed be a problem. When I read this question I was immediately reminded of the time several decades ago when I was looking for the word "aisle" in a dictionary. I didn't know how to spell it, and I assumed it started with an "i", so I searched in vain without finding it.
The only way I know to find a spelling from a pronunciation is to know all the conventional English pronunciation rules, so that you can guess at alternate spellings. From the pronunciation "in-dite-ment" you could pretty readily guess that it must start with an "i" or an "e", those are the only two letters commonly pronounced with the short "i" sound. Even if you thought it was more of a schwa, "i" and "e" are the most likely possibilities for the beginning of a word. The next letter is almost surely "n" -- no other letter in English makes an "n" sound. Similarly next is "d". The long "i" sound could be made with "i", "ae", "ay", or "ey". Etc. Yeah, the silent "c" is going to trip you up. Etc.
It would be very nice if there were dictionaries or web sites that had some sort of cross index by pronunciation. Maybe there are: I don't know of any.