3

I believe that the second and the third sentences are grammatically correct and the first one is incorrect. I would appreciate if you could clarify the issue here.

Thanks in advance.

Sentences are as follows:

1- Do you know the lady is sitting in the car ?

2- Do you know the lady sitting in the car ?

3- Do you know the lady who is sitting in the car ?

5

All three are grammatical!

Do you know the lady is sitting in the car?
Do you know [that] [the lady is sitting in the car]?

Here, the question is whether you are aware of the fact that the lady is sitting in the car. (You may be thinking she is still powdering her nose, but no, she is sitting in the car, waiting).

Number 2 and 3 are equivalent:

Do you know [the lady sitting in the car]?
Do you know [the lady who is sitting in the car]?

In this case, the question is whether you are acquainted with the person in the car.

The major difference is that in sentence 1, we have a complete sentence that is used as the subject of know: “The lady is sitting in the car”.

The phrases “the lady sitting in the car” and “the lady who is sitting in the car” are noun phrase. They simply refer to the lady (and then give some more information about that lady).

Sentence 1 has a similar structure to

Do you know (that) it is Friday?

Whereas 2 and 3 are structured like

Do you know John?

1

Meanings are:

  1. Telling someone that 'a lady is sitting in the car'.
  2. Asking, whether you know the lady who is sitting in car ? It could be in case you know her, may be your friend met her once or two. Now you are like to test his/her memory you are asking do you know her or remember her ? it could be kind of reminding you friend.
  3. You only know there is lady in car, you don't know who she is. May be you are looking from angle you are unable to recognise her face. But you know your friend recognise her, so you ask him/her Do you know who is sitting in the car?
0

I agree that all three are grammatical, however the first one is generally phrased as "Did you know the lady is in the car?" and it would only work if there was a specific lady to be spoken about in the current context. It's hard for me to put my finger on the specific difference between "Do you know..." and "Did you know...". I think I'd tend to use the first one if I really didn't expect the person I'm talking to to know that and I'm trying to impart the information to them. The second I'd more likely use if I'm just inquiring about their understanding and so I'm trying to get information from them about their state of knowledge rather than trying to give information to them about "the lady" in the car.

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