Applying those principles here, it is clear that the sections in question are unambiguous in their application and ...

What is the sense of the above sentence, 1 or 2?

  1. If we apply those principles here, it becomes clear that ...

  2. Given those principles, the sections in question ...

Also, if "1" is the correct interpretation, can we replace "Applying" with "The application of"—i.e., "The application of those principles here makes clear that ..."?

1 Answer 1


Although there is little meaningful difference in effect (between the choices), the first is a truer echo of the original because it too expresses an action – the application or act of applying principles – unlike the second choice, which takes them as in place and not in need of application. Either might work, depending on context and purpose.

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