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The report also highlights the rapid growth of export financing from three Asian competitors: Korea, Japan and China. These countries provided significantly more export-credit support to their respective domestic companies and industries than did the United States in 2013.

In addition, the report underscores two trends: unregulated competition is expanding and commercial banks have largely withdrawn from pockets of the export-finance arena, including providing support for small businesses. The United States faces more robust competition from export-credit agencies offering terms that are not regulated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which encourages global export competition based on free-market principles and mutually agreed-upon standards. For example, Ex-Im Bank support for all of its $15 billion in medium- and long-term financing was regulated by the OECD Arrangement, but other OECD member countries offered more than $60 billion alone of unregulated export financing support (on top of $83 billion in export financing governed by the OECD Arrangement).

Nations that are not subject to the OECD framework, including Brazil, Russia, India and China, provided $115 billion in trade-related financing. Unregulated support totaled substantially more than all OECD-regulated support, a trend the report expects to continue and one which is poised to place U.S. exporters at a competitive disadvantage absent the tools made available by Ex-Im Bank.

-- Export-Import Bank Report to Congress: Aggressive, Unregulated Financing from Foreign Competitors is Costing U.S. Jobs Source

Does alone modify $60 billion? And according to the bracketed sentence, $60 billion is on top of $83 billion? I think I misunderstand it, but I'm quite confused by these inconsistent numbers.

In addition, absent seems to be acting as a preposition here. If not, I think it should be absent from. Is it a typo?

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If I'm reading this correctly, Ex-Im Bank is a US-based financial institution regulated by the OECD. It offers $15 billion of export financing, which is part of the $83 billion total export financing governed by the OECD Arrangement.

So to answer your questions:

And according to the bracketed sentence, $60 billion is on top of $83 billion?

Yes, this is correct. The OECD Arrangement is governing $83 billion of export financing, and the other OECD countries besides the US are offering an additional $60 billion on top of that.

Does alone modify $60 billion?

I'd say no. It actually modifies the "other OECD member countries". They are offering the additional export financing independent of the US. They are offering the financing themselves--alone.

In addition, absent seems to be acting as a preposition here. If not, I think it should be absent from. Is it a typo?

It's not a typo. It's taking the place of the phrase 'since they don't have' or 'if they don't receive' or 'without' something like that. But yes, it is functioning as preposition here.

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