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The forest was spooky. I suddenly wished we’d come during the day. Why (did) all the trips had to be at night?

Do I need to add did in the example above? When do I have to add did and when not?

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In modern English, the creation of an interrogative sentence by reversing the subject and the verb is archaic except with certain verbs. Normally now, the verb "do" is used as an auxiliary. So yes, you have to use did here. Also, the main verb is an infinitive, so it doesn't inflect. Correct is

Why did all the trips have to be in the night?

And in present tense:

Why do all the trips have to be in the night?

Now, look at these:

How do you make biscuits?
How does he make biscuits?
Can he make biscuits?
Must he make biscuits?
Should he make biscuits?
Does he have to make biscuits?
How dare he make biscuits?
How does he dare to make biscuits?
Does he have any biscuits?
Has he any biscuits? (This is generally BrE)
Is he a biscuit maker?

So, you don't use do when using any form of be. Have can go either way. Auxiliary verbs that can replace do are can, must, should, and dare. (There are probably others I haven't thought of.) Also, have and will replace do in past perfect and future tense, respectively.

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