# In the given graph VS In the graph given

Is there grammatical and sense difference between these two variations:

"The two given graphs reflect the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007". reflect the percentage relationships between UK migrants in the year 2007".

"The two graphs given reflect the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007". reflect the percentage relationships between UK migrants in the year 2007".

Is it normal English to say "graph given" - I mean how the native speaker was talking about the graph he has got for analysis.

• In a hurry, so it's a comment: graphs given= graphs that are given, more formal. – M.A.R. Jan 7 '15 at 15:11
• @MARamezani but is the "given graphs" form ok? – Ilan Jan 7 '15 at 15:12
• Yes that is okay too... a given graph and a graph given both have the same meaning and both are correct. A graph given = A graph which was given – Man_From_India Jan 7 '15 at 15:55
• This question is useful - english.stackexchange.com/questions/31009/… – Man_From_India Jan 7 '15 at 16:04
• "given graph" would have a different meaning: you have a mathematical problem, there is known data ("given") and unknown variables which you are to find. "Given graph" would be a graph provided as input, to use in finding the solution, a "known data". – SF. Mar 17 '15 at 14:04

## 3 Answers

"...given graphs..." means that the graphs are being shown, displayed or presented.

But "...graphs given..." means that the graphs have been handed over to someone.

Consider :

1. The given graph shows the increase in the price of petrol in the current year.

2. The graph given to you shows the increase in the price of petrol in the current year.

To my (American) ear:

This usage of "given" is very formal. I associate this usage with logic problems like "Given <X>, prove <Y>" or "Given <X>, find <Y>". Thus, "The two given graphs" sounds more natural to me than "The two graphs given" in your usage. I can parse the "The two given graphs…" sentence more easily, because I do not need to check for a construction like "The two graphs, given <these assumptions>,…"

On the other hand, a sentence like "The two graphs were given by Fred to Jane" is grammatical (but not very natural). "The two given graphs from Fred to Jane" is not grammatical.

If the original poster's example is referring to two nearby graphs in the same work, there are other ways to express the idea. These other ways sound more natural to me:

The two graphs show the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007.
Graph <#1> and graph <#2> show the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007.
The previous two graphs show the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007.
The following two graphs show the percentage relationship among UK migrants in the year 2007.

In my second idea, I am trying to reference specific graphs. Sometimes this is done by referencing "Figure 4", or "Step 3", or "Exhibit 29", or "Graph 13", or "Appendix A". Usually the figure will have a more explanatory title, such as "4. Immigrant spouses, by country of origin." or "Graph 13. Relationships of UK immigrants." or "Graph 14: Relationships of UK emigrants."

By the way, I do not know what the original poster means by "the percentage relationship among UK migrants". Also, I am not sure if the graph shows "the percentage relationship among UK migrants", or if it shows something that is affected by (and thus reflects) "the percentage relationship among UK migrants".

• Jasper, I think context is important here to understand the meaning of "the percentage relationship among UK migrants". It's completely my guess that that graph contains some kind of comparison - a percentage comparison of something compared to the people started to live in UK from other part of the world (UK migrants) – Man_From_India Jan 8 '15 at 2:46

Okay I'm not totally certain about it, but this is how I see it:

When you say "given graphs" it seems to make complete sense naturally. However, using "graphs given" demands more information. (like given where?)

For example consider the following sentences:

In the given graph, we see a steady decline.

In the graph given in the book, we see a steady decline.

Taking the example from your question,

"The two given graphs reflect the..."

"The two graphs given in the chart reflect the... "

Trying to interchange the usage doesn't flow as naturally.