For example, if the law has begun to be regarded as the main document for resolving such issues somewhen in the past, and is still regarded suchwise, should one use Present Perfect Continuous Passive or just Present Perfect Passive writing about it, or Present Participle is nice? So, indicate the incorrect versions, please.

(Having been being || Being || Having been) regarded as the main document for resolving such issues, the law must be applied.

  • First, we don't refer to the law as a document. As for the syntax of the sentence, any three of those participles can work. It depends on what kind of relationship in time you are trying to establish (between the participle and the finite verb must).
    – user6951
    Jan 24, 2015 at 11:17
  • Having been being regarded??
    – TimR
    Jan 24, 2015 at 11:47
  • I realize this is just a hypothetical example, but we would rarely see this kind of construction. Let's substitute "constitution" for "law"; it would be simply: As the primary document for resolving such issues, the constitution must be applied. That one word, "as", contains in its little self the meaning of that rather awkward verbal construction.
    – TimR
    Jan 24, 2015 at 11:50
  • We could also say "As the constitution has always been the primary document for resolving such issues, it must be applied". The verb alone does not usually shoulder the entire burden of temporal meaning. We more typically make use of adverbs like always.
    – TimR
    Jan 24, 2015 at 12:51

2 Answers 2


It's a bit controversal question. Some grammarians say that the present perfect continuous tense doesn't exist in the passive form. They say that the nearest equivalent of a sentence such as They have been repairing the road would normally be The road has been repaired lately. They have been constructing the building for four months would be The building has been under construction for four months.

Others say that sentences in all tenses can be formed in the passive forms; the present perfect continuous is no exception. However, its use that is less common should be avoided. According to them, it should be used to express events recently occurred in the past and continue in the present. For example, The toys have been being broken by children. Too much pollution has been being dumped in the river.

In light of the above, I would go for the sentences presented by TRomano in his comments. Alternatively, you can start your sentence with "being" or "having been" as suggested in the question.


Use do as a "shim":

Present Perfect Continuous Active:

I have been buying and selling for 3 days.

Present Perfect Continuous Passive:

Buying and selling for 3 days has been done by me.

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .