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What is the difference between these sentences?

I might be able to finish work today

I might finish work today

He might come today

He might be able to come today

Any help would be appreciated.

3

I might be able to finish work today.

The key thing here is to notice that be able denotes your ability. The modal verb might connects to be able, not only to be.

By adding be able on top of some modal verb like might, you judge your ability to finish work today:

I will be able to finish work today. (I believe that I will be able to do it)
I will not be able to finish work today. (I believe that I will not be able to do it)
I should be able to finish work today. (I have an obligation to have the ability to do it)
I would be able to finish work today if you give me the materials. (A conditional sentence)

In the sentence

I might finish work today.

The modal verb might connects to the verb finish. You estimate the possibility of finishing work today, but you do not mention your ability. As a results of this, the statement is less uncertain.

The same holds true for

He might come today. (On the other hand, he might not - but we don't say that that's because of his inability)
He might be able to come today. (On the other hand, he might even be unable to come!)

The be able thing could be used to make a polite refusal:

Sorry, I might not be able to come today. (There is a possibility that I will not come to visit you, but that would be because of my inability, not because I don't want to).

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The "might be able" forms suggest that whether he manages to finish or come depends, at least in part, on him (specifically, his ability)

The simpler "might" forms simply say nothing about what finishing/coming depends on. Maybe it is his ability, but maybe it's an approaching asteroid not hitting the earth. We just don't know.

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