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This question comprehensively has been edited:Could you think of where or in which situation or condition--or which verbs-- such prepositions could mean the same thing or even interchangeable?

until

by

The documents need to be ready by next Friday.

Here "until" would have the same meaning.

UPDATED: So, you could see both the prepositions has been used with the same verb-- although the meaning of the sentence has been changed. My specific question is about the stative or dynamic verbs, since the preposition "by" could go just along together dynamic verb, and conversely the preposition"until" merely can go with "static" verbs.

Imagine that it takes some time to extend negotiations. Perhaps everybody needs to fill in many forms. There's a lot of administration to do, if you want to extend negotiations. Now look at this sentence:

They decided to extend the negotiations by July 1, 2015. This sentence means that they decided to finish all the administration for the extension before July 1, 2015.

Now look at this sentence:

They decided to extend the negotiations until July 1, 2015. This means that the minimum duration of the negotiations is from now to July 1, 2015. The negotiations will not finish till July 1, 2015.

Thanks in advance

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    Please go through one of your previous question. Some valuable information is there ell.stackexchange.com/questions/48521/… – Man_From_India Feb 7 '15 at 18:09
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    @Man_From_India - I had the feeling that I've seen this questions somewhere (0: – CowperKettle Feb 7 '15 at 18:14
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    @nima I am not voting to close, but could you please put a little more effort into formatting your questions? Doing so would make them much easier to read, which would encourage people to put effort into answering them. Things like setting the sample phrases off with ">" and italicizing the specific thing you are asking about would help a lot. – Adam Feb 7 '15 at 19:11
  • This question is mainly an answer you got to your previous question. If you didn't like it as an answer, it's not likely to make a great question either. – Brian Hitchcock Feb 8 '15 at 9:36
  • There is one situation that almost fits your question. NOT ... until and by often have a similar meaning. So It doesn't need to be ready until Friday usually means a similar thing to It needs to be ready by Friday. Does this help? [There is no difference between until and by in terms of being used with stative or dynamic verbs.] – Araucaria - Not here any more. Feb 8 '15 at 14:01
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  1. The documents need to be ready by next Friday. (Next Friday: documents should be ready at some point before this day. They are likely not ready now and should become ready by this date.)

If you insert until here, the sentence will change its meaning to one radically different. In civil engineering terms, there will be a 180-degree turn in meaning:

  1. The documents need to be ready until next Friday. (the documents should be in the ready condition until that date. After next Friday, they could assume a "non-ready" condition, it will be not important.)

You can use until and make a sentence approaching sentence 1 in meaning:

I'll wait until next Friday for the documents to be produced.

or

In the period starting now and lasting until next Friday, the documents should be fully prepared.

The document preparation period will last until next Friday.

or, in a somewhat wonky fashion,

Until next Friday is the period of time during which the preparation of the documents should be completed.

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Sentence 1

The documents need to be ready until Friday.

Some questions to help:

  1. Are the documents ready now?: Yes!
  2. Do the documents need to be ready tomorrow too? Yes!
  3. Do the documents need to be ready on next Saturday?: No! They only need to be ready from now to next Friday.

This sentence means that the documents are ready now. Their ready status needs to continue. After Friday, they don't need to be ready any more.

Sentence 2

The documents need to be ready by Friday.

Some questions to help:

  1. Are the documents ready now?: No!
  2. Do the documents need to be ready tomorrow? No!
  3. When do the documents need to be ready? Before Friday!

This means the documents needs to be ready before Friday. The person speaking doesn't think the documents are ready now.

Hope this is helpful!

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    Nice answer especially for those questions under each sentences :-) – Man_From_India Feb 8 '15 at 3:10

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