A real palace of a house
That idiot of a doctor
Would you show me the phrases above in some other ways that mean the same thing?
Any comment would be appreciated
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Yes. The phrasing used in your examples might be construed as more emphatic than "That doctor is an idiot." (but not as emphatic as "Tthat doctor is an idiot!") — any of these can be considered hyperbole.
Likewise in the house/palace example, the house is not literally a palace; is is LIKE a palace, so the phrasing is understood as a metaphor (exaggerated) rather than a true equivalence.
Also, the "X of a Y" construction lets you create such sentences as "That idiot of a doctor told me that LDL was "bad cholesterol". Which is shorter than "That doctor is [such] an idiot. He told me that LDL was "bad cholesterol".