Regarding the following construction
Lengthy literature survey is mainly caused for this extension.
I would like to ask:
Do I correctly use "cause" in above sentence?
What is the general rule when using "cause"?
1 No - your current sentence is ungrammatical. You probably should use because instead of cause
The main reason I need an extension is because the literature survey took so long.
If you want to keep the word cause, you can use the slightly more stilted
The lengthy literature survey caused me to need an extension.
2 Use of the word cause is given in the dictionary:
A person or thing that gives rise to an action, phenomenon, or condition.
Make (something) happen: "this disease can cause blindness".