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I don't know how to use did+present tense OR past tense

Did sarah go to the party this Thursday?
OR
Did sarah went to the party this Thursday?

Where had you been?
OR
Where have you been?

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    Welcome to ELL! You must realize that the sentence pairs you ask the grammaticality of are two different fields of argument. It's better to do a study on perfect and past. – M.A.R. Mar 1 '15 at 13:10
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Do employed as an auxiliary always requires the infinitive form of the following verb, not a tensed form.

This can be difficult to detect because the only English verb whose infinitive form is distinguishable from its 'plain' present-tense form is be, and in practice there are very few occasions for using do be. But consider:

Don't be such a jerk.
Have a nice trip! And do be careful.

Both have been and had been are valid English constructions; which you employ (if either) will depend on context. This has been addressed here on many occasions; you may consult questions tagged , and [perfect-constructions], or the canonical post What is the perfect, and how should I use it?.

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The correct version is 'Did sarah go to the party'? (NOT : Did sarah went..?)

In simple past tense, we must use past verbs (such as went,saw,etc..) only when we express a positive statement.

E.g: 1.sarah went to the party.

But when we express a negative statement or when we ask questions (positive or negative) about the past, we must use present verbs.(NOT: past verbs). for example,

  1. Did sarah go to the party?
  2. Sarah didn't go to the party.
  3. Didn't sarah go to the party?

Your second examples (*Where had you been? and Where have you been?) are not simple past sentences. They're past perfect and present perfect respectively. In past perfect tense, we use Had + subj. + Past participle? , and in present perfect, we use Has/have + subj. + Past participle? verb. So the verb been in your example is not a past verb. It's the Past participle of 'be'.

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