I don't know how to use did+present tense OR past tense
Did sarah go to the party this Thursday?
Did sarah went to the party this Thursday?
Where had you been?
Where have you been?
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Do employed as an auxiliary always requires the infinitive form of the following verb, not a tensed form.
This can be difficult to detect because the only English verb whose infinitive form is distinguishable from its 'plain' present-tense form is be, and in practice there are very few occasions for using do be. But consider:
Don't be such a jerk.
Have a nice trip! And do be careful.
Both have been and had been are valid English constructions; which you employ (if either) will depend on context. This has been addressed here on many occasions; you may consult questions tagged present-perfect, past-perfect and [perfect-constructions], or the canonical post What is the perfect, and how should I use it?.
The correct version is 'Did sarah go to the party'? (NOT : Did sarah went..?)
In simple past tense, we must use past verbs (such as went,saw,etc..) only when we express a positive statement.
E.g: 1.sarah went to the party.
But when we express a negative statement or when we ask questions (positive or negative) about the past, we must use present verbs.(NOT: past verbs). for example,
- Did sarah go to the party?
- Sarah didn't go to the party.
- Didn't sarah go to the party?
Your second examples (*Where had you been? and Where have you been?) are not simple past sentences. They're past perfect and present perfect respectively. In past perfect tense, we use Had + subj. + Past participle? , and in present perfect, we use Has/have + subj. + Past participle? verb. So the verb been in your example is not a past verb. It's the Past participle of 'be'.