OALD: 4. anticipate somebody (doing something) (formal)
= to do something before it can be done by somebody else
● When Scott reached the South Pole he found that Amundsen had anticipated him.
Please beware that I ask only about this definition unique to anticipate. The use of the others that overlap with 'expect' are decried on p 53, Plain Words, 2014, by Ernest Gowers, revised by Rebecca Gowers.
Amundsen reached the South pole on 14 December 1911; so it preceded Scott's arrival on 17 January 1912. But the fact remains that Scott still arrived there; so how did Amundsen anticipate (= forestall) Scott?