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Here's the context

"Her heart leaping into her throat, she tiptoed into the salon. Such was her astonishment at seeing Mike chatting with her boss that she leaned against the wall, incapable of making another move."

Is this a phrase or what? Could it be used in other forms as well?

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In general, "such was the [noun]" or "such is the [noun]" are used when you want to indicate that the description of the subject is coming soon or has immediately preceded.

In this context, "such was her astonishment" at the beginning of the sentence is pointing to the description of her astonishment that follows. For clarification, remove the middle part of the sentence to make this connection easier to see:

"Such was her astonishment that she leaned against the wall, incapable of making another move."

"Such was" can be used in this way after the description rather than before it:

"She leaned against the wall, incapable of making another move. Such was her astonishment."

In this case I moved "such was her astonishment" to a new sentence after the description of the astonishment.

Here is an example of the same structure used in a different sentence:

Such was the force of her presence that what came after her was defined in terms of her absence.

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This such-structure is an inversion of the following pattern:

{X is such} + {that-clause} [archaic: + {as-clause}]

Conditions on the mountain are such that exposed skin can become frostbitten in only minutes.

Inverted:

Such are conditions on the mountain that exposed skin can become frostbitten in only minutes.

The register is not colloquial but semi-formal/formal; it is rarely if ever heard in conversations among the 99%.

such in this case = "of a quality", "of a sort", "of a kind"; the that-clause defines the quality, sort, or kind:

Conditions on the mountain are of a kind that skin can become frostbitten in only minutes.

The fronting of such intensifies the statement by focusing attention on the quality, sort, or kind. (The final word of a clause is not the only place of emphasis.)

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