Why is there no article (a or the) in front of "President"?
Is the title grammatically correct?
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"President", like "king", "governor", etc, is a title and so doesn't need an article. No doubt confusing, it CAN be used with an article. You can say, "He wants to be president" or "He wants to be the president". If it's a job that many people have simultaneously, you'd normally say "a" rather than "the". Like, "He wants to be senator" or "He wants to be a senator".
You can use a title without an article as long as its a title that could actually go in front of someone's name. Like we say, "President Jones", so you could say, "Jones wants to be president." It usually doesn't apply to job descriptions, as opposed to titles. That is, you can't say, "He wants to be accountant", because no one calls a person "Accountant Jones".
English does not always require an article before nouns. Specifically:
Proper nouns, e.g. "I'm going to France." [But "I'm going to the Philippines," is correct for the plural.] President, in this case, is used as a proper noun, but if it were "I want to be a Senator," since there are many, the article may be used.
Some nouns are often used without an article, as in, "Go to school." In the UK, "Go to hospital," is more common, but in the US, it's more likely to be "Go to the hospital."
Idiomatic English is not consistent, however. An article on the article "The Ukraine" points out how it can change connotation.