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I explored every inch of the beach: its rocks, its reefs, its shoreline, all (of them) coated with green moss.

Can I omit that "of them"? Why or why not?

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    Grammatical to omit "of them". All can be used nominally. "All" could also be taken adverbially -- "all coated" meaning "entirely coated", or "very much coated". One could say "Those rocks are all slippery with moss". – Tᴚoɯɐuo Apr 25 '15 at 14:50
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    And if you slipped and fell into the water, you would be all wet. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Apr 25 '15 at 14:57
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Both examples are grammatically correct but omitting of them changes the meaning: all would then apply to just the shoreline (i.e. all the shoreline coated with green).

Consider if the order of words were changed, to make it more obvious:

I explored every inch of the beach: its rocks, its shoreline, all coated with green, its reefs.

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