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Here's a context

There’s a habit we all do in everyday life, one that is called rumination. To ruminate means to chew over. It's when your boss yells at you, or your professor makes you feel stupid in class, or you have big fight with a friend and you just can't stop replaying the scene in your head for days, sometimes for weeks on end. Ruminating about upsetting events in this way can easily become a habit, one that is very costly. Because by spending so much time focused on upsetting and negative thoughts, you are actually putting yourself at significant risk for developing depression, alcoholism, eating disorders. You really need to stop thinking

And for the purpose of fully understanding how to use 'one' that is used to add an idea after the sentence finished, I've made two usage. Am I right to use this way?

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Yes, it is used correctly in both cases (though I would avoid using it twice in the same paragraph, I realize this was done to provide an example).

"One" is used as an appositive; that is, a noun or pronoun referring back to another. Other examples are, "I like that car, the sedan," and "I like that car, the black one."

Your last statement, "add an idea after the sentence finished" should be "add an idea [or provide additional detail] after a clause". Everything is part of a sentence, from the initial capital letter to the end punctuation.

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