in the midst of desperation spread by the darkness fraught with fear, there appeared oriflammes of knights, waving against the harsh and merciless storms

The expression in bold refers to knights or there appeared oriflammes of knights or oriflammes of knights ?

I mean, in this sentence and context ,

1.)is the action of waving related to knights as in "knights who wave against the hursh and merciless stroms" which is meaningless to me ?


2.) related to the oriflammes of knights as in oriflammes which is waving?


3.)is the mentioned expression in bold present participle which explains whole sentence it follows, meaning that oriflammes of knights appeared while waving. ?

  • This appears to have a number of typos (hursh and stroms?). Could you please check to see if you've copied it correctly, and could you please tell us what it's from?
    – user230
    May 11, 2015 at 14:23
  • I've tried to write it by myself. I edited the mistakes by the way. May 11, 2015 at 16:01
  • Oh, I see! Thanks for letting us know :-) It helps if we know whether we're helping someone interpret a sentence written by someone else or work on one of their own.
    – user230
    May 11, 2015 at 16:15

1 Answer 1


What appeared is

oriflammes of knights

The word waving can modify either oriflammes or knights. And I can speculate as to which one it modifies (probably oriflammes), perhaps further context can make it clearer.

Both knights and oriflammes can wave.

One thing problematic could be waving against the wind. Things usually wave in the wind, which is why I would ask for more context. Perhaps it is just an unfortunate choice of prepositions.

  • Meanwhile ,it is me who completely wrote it :) , I want you to notice that I did not use the word "wind" , but "storm" ."Against the storm" must be changed to "in the storm" do you think? May 11, 2015 at 16:40
  • Secondly , what I still don't get is that why "waving against the harsh and merciless storms" can not be used as present participle?.In Oxford Guide to English Grammer book, it says "A clause with an active participle (e.g. playing, serving) means an action at the same time as the action of the main clause.Mike hurt his hand playing badminton. We were rushing about serving tea to everyone. Am I not able to use "waving..." in the role that "playing and serving " take in the sentences above? @pazzo May 11, 2015 at 16:51
  • Sorry, there have been actual winds and storms outside my house this morning. Let me switch to a different device and update my answer.
    – user6951
    May 11, 2015 at 16:56
  • stay safe and sound :) while it occured to my mind, I better write it in case I may forget later . What if we put "waving against the hursh and merciless storms" at the beginning of the sentence? Therefore may it mean that the expression starting with "waving..." takes the role of present participle do you think? @pazzo May 11, 2015 at 17:05

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