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I think these seem like phrases, may you place an adverb here? May adverbs go mostly after verbs?

Since I ran, the dog followed me.

I ran since, the dog followed me.

I think these seem like clauses, where may you get to place an adverb?

He ran hastily.

He hastily ran.

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    Since is a preposition or a conjunction, and your first two examples mean different things. Since in your examples is equivalent to because. (Note that since can also be used to express the time a condition has been in existence - i.e. Since 2:00 I have been hungry. - this is not related to because.) – LawrenceC May 21 '15 at 22:05
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Just like ultrasawblade said, "since" is not an adverb. In this case, it means "because". The first sentence means

Because I ran, the dog followed me.

The second doesn't make any sense with the comma where it is. If you remove the comma, it means

Because the dog followed me, I ran.

As for your real question about where you can place an adverb, before or after the verb is fine. You could even place it before or after the entire clause.

Hastily, he ran from the dog. (Before the clause)

He hastily ran from the dog. (In the clause, before the verb)

He ran hastily from the dog. (In the clause, after the verb)

He ran from the dog hastily. (After the clause)

I can't think of any examples where the meaning is different when you move the adverb.

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