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I plant the garden with some flowers.

Is it the same as "I plant some flowers in the garden."? What are their nuances?

What does "with some flowers" modify in this sentence?

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The sentences mean the same.

However, to plant the garden with some flowers is ambiguous. You could interpret some flowers as the tool with which you are planting something.

This phrase is much clearer and not ambiguous:

plant some flowers in the garden

0

"With some flowers" is not a modifier, it's a complement of the verb "plant". It's the logical direct object. Why is there a "with"? Who knows? It is probably like the "with" that turns up before the logical direct object in some indirect object constructions: "He presented a gift to her" = "He presented her with a gift".

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I would see "with some flowers" as a second object that simply indicates with what as in: I fill the bowl with water.

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