As I parse it, the first sentence is complex. The matrix clause has one subject, one verb, and two complements. They are coordinate complements joined by the correlative conjunction "not ... but".
Complement 1: ever jealous for the cause
Complement 2: jealous for they're jealous
Inside the second complement is another clause. The subject and verb of this clause are contracted: "they're". The conjunction "for" attaches the clause "they're jealous" to the preceding word "jealous". The subordinate clause fulfills the function of an adverb, supplying a cause or purpose to the adjective.
The second sentence, although complicated, is not complex -- at least, not when I parse it. There is only one clause. It has one subject, one verb, and one complement with two participial modifiers.
Simple Complement: a monster
"Begot upon itself" is a participial phrase. The "begot" is a non-finite verb. It doesn't have a tense, it doesn't require a subject, and it doesn't form a clause. "Born on itself" is the same. Each of these phrases modifies the word "monster".
There do exist analytical frameworks which insist that non-finite verb forms do create clauses. I don't use such a framework because I find that to be an unnecessary complication. If you are using such a framework, then you'll have to consider your second sentence as a complex sentence with two subordinate clauses. If your framework is like mine, then you should consider your second example as a simple sentence with two participial phrases in the complete subject complement.
Regardless of whether the sentence is simple or complex -- that is, whether the participles form phrases or clauses -- the sentence contains asyndetic coordination. "Begot upon itself" and "born on itself" are joined by a comma. Syndetic coordination would use a conjunction between those two constituents: "begot upon itself and born on itself".
Even though there are coordinate elements, and even if you consider those elements to be clauses, those elements are not independent clauses. For that reason, neither one of your example sentences count as compound sentences.