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I know the phase "figure of speech" means a word or phrase used in a nonliteral sense to add rhetorical force to a spoken or written passage. But I don't get the phase when I break it into single words.

What does "figure" mean here?

  • Did you do any research on what figure might mean? – DCShannon Jun 6 '15 at 3:42
  • @DCShannon Yes, I have explored its every meaning in New Oxford American Dictionary, but without a good matching from my point of view. I also searched in the old posts in ELL.SE, no relevant post is found. – wang zhihao Jun 6 '15 at 3:49
  • Oh, yeah. The definitions in the online oxford dictionary for figure are pretty bad. They always try to get so specific. – DCShannon Jun 6 '15 at 3:51
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In general, a 'figure' is a shape or pattern. It is the form of something. For some reason, the online Oxford Dictionaries have indicated the closest general meaning as archaic:

3.4 archaic The external form or shape of a thing.

I usually start with Wiktionary, myself. Wiktionary's entry for 'figure' has some applicable definitions:

  1. The representation of any form, as by drawing, painting, modelling, carving, embroidering, etc.; especially, a representation of the human body

  2. A shape.

  3. A visible pattern as in wood or cloth.

So it doesn't have to be a person, like the Oxford entries might lead you to believe. Ignore the bit about wood and cloth in 4. Any visible pattern is a figure.

So, if we have a set pattern of words that we say the same way each time, in other words a pattern of speech, that's a figure of speech.

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I have been looking for an answer to the same question. Here is my little research

We have a literal meaning and a non-literal meaning

The non-literal meaning is figurative. The words become a symbol for something else beyond the literal meaning, the non-literal one.

Figurative has the sense of using words to paint/draw/sketch/build/ [non-literal meanings].

You could check the two entries below for help.


The Online Etymology Dictionary

figure (n.) c. 1200, "numeral;" mid-13c., "visible appearance of a person;" late 14c., "visible and tangible form of anything," from Old French figure "shape, body; form of a word; figure of speech; symbol, allegory" (10c), from Latin figura "a shape, form, figure; quality, kind, style; figure of speech," in Late Latin "a sketch, drawing," from PIE *dheigh- "to form, build" (see dough).


Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary

Allegory:

An allegory is a story, poem, or painting in which the characters and events are symbols of something else. Allegories are often moral, religious, or political.

The book is a kind of allegory of Latin American history.

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