Machiavelli was a product of Renaissance Florence, a city-state that was struggling for expansion and survival among a competing group of similar states. As a public servant and diplomat, Machiavelli came to understand power politics by observing the spectacle around him without any illusions.

A. I know what the bold means, but wondering what is its concept.


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  • 2
    ... Competing group of similar city-states
    – Jim
    Jun 6, 2015 at 19:43
  • 1
    States similar to Florence. Jun 6, 2015 at 20:38
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    I'm confused. If you understand the portion in bold, what is your question? Jun 7, 2015 at 0:28
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    I am also confused. Can you try elaborating and rewording the question, "What is its concept?" Jun 7, 2015 at 1:32
  • Thanks for your reply. You are right, as the question is not crystal clear. By that I mean that if there was at the time some states which were similar to that city?
    – nima
    Jun 7, 2015 at 14:54

1 Answer 1


Similar refers to city-state, Florence was competing with other city-states, like Pisa.

The Tuscan saying Pisa merda reflects how Pisa managed to get hated by everybody in that period of the city-states, before the Granduchy of Tuscany conquered everything.


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