If you're playing a game where opponents take turns, the preposition "on" is appropriate—on my turn, on his next turn, etc. This is true even if playing against a computer, e.g.Chess or Scrabble.
By your question mark after "turns" in reference to solo computer games, I infer that you might be wondering whether "turn" is the appropriate term for games in which one has multiple distinct opportunities to play, e.g, to accumulate points and/or advance to another level. In many such games, particularly shoot-em-up (combat) games, it's a do-or-die situation in which your "turn" ends when you "die" and you get another "turn" only if, like the proverbial cat, you have more lives to use up.
In these cases, I would say that "turn" is NOT appropriate. The computerized antagonists are not "taking "turns", so the solo player is not "taking turns". The separate periods of play could be called rounds, or lives.