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I want to know if this sentence implies that we are talking the present, and, if so, how could we change it into the past form?

This world would be a better place if some people didn't exist.

Also, is it correct?

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Yes it's a correct sentence. This is the second conditional sentence. We can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible, unreal, improbable.

The second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the infinitive.

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"would be" is past subjunctive and though it is grammatically a past tense it generally refers to present time. Grammatical tense and time referred to are sometimes different. Present tense can refer to future time.

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