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Almost all definitions which I've found about this phrase describes it as a way to say that something is related to something else but the more I search the more I believe that it more often means "impact" or "Influence" rather than "relation".

Could someone please help me to understand this phrase?

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Does "have a bearing on" also mean "impact"? No.

Can someone help me to understand this phrase? I shall try.

Having a bearing on an object is an effect of sharing a trait with a demonstrable effect; impact on the other hand, is a cause to an effect upon another object.

Let's take @FumbleFingers' example:

This explains why archeologists are so careful to record the depth at which objects are found - the depth usually has a bearing on the age of the find.

The depth of the earth in a given location is an effect of the conditions at the time it was deposited. An archeological artifact deposited at a given depth in a given location is an effect of the conditions at the time it was deposited. Thus the depth of the earth is having a bearing on the age of the find because the age of the earth at that depth and the age of the find should be the same.

So, to sum up:

  • Impact causes an effect on an object
  • Having a bearing on is a demonstrable effect of a trait shared between objects.
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"bearing" as a noun has several meanings. OALD, 8th edition, has "to have some bearing on sth" and says "to have bearing" in this formulation has the meaning of relevance.

The online version of OALD has another explanation with relation or influence, which I think is not so clear.

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