Here are the terms I have heard/used as a native American English speaker, mostly 'newscaster' English but I also picked up a lot of southern dialect from my mother's side of the family (Texan), and various English English I've picked up from various places:
I am restating your examples to make sure I understood; for #2, I wasn't entirely sure since the two words used mean different things, and there isn't much additional description... Let me know if I misunderstood anything, or missed anything.
(suggested answers in bold italics and linked to definitions in Merriam-Webster Online (MWO) or Wikipedia; any quoted definitions can be assumed to be from the nearby quoted source, and I was cross-checking with the references throughout; no plagiarism intended. :D)
one might use foreign or foreign-sounding rather generically for items 1 and 3;
a generic term probably usable for any of the three types you mention, could be out-of-place (see the notes after definition 12.); or, perhaps simply strange (or strange-sounding) or, maybe, that it sounds funny (in the sense of strange, rather than humorous, although depending on the situation, perhaps humorous as well);
there are some other similar words like 'off' 'unnatural' 'odd' 'weird' (I'm sure I'll be repeating words mentioned in some of the other answers since I've spent so long posting xD) which are also fairly generic terms, and I think would apply broadly. and, of course, you could just say it's 'incorrect' or 'wrong'. (didn't give translations for these since none of them strike me as specifically language related...)
as for some more specific words:
for when someone uses words that are technically correct, but that perhaps sound strange in the context used (e.g. would not be used by a native speaker) such as a word that:
a. has a slightly different meaning than the intended one, due to shades of difference between synonyms, I can't think of a specific word, although many of the above would apply, as mentioned:
- example: "I saw a noted actress today!" (meaning famous)
b. you might say something has a wrong connotation (i.e. such as using a pejorative when not intended by the speaker):
'obsolete' could mean a few things:
when using very a very old word or speech, I would probably say that it was archaic; as in:
a. using an out-of-place archaic word that is correct only in one or a few select instances, but is otherwise no longer productive:
- example: 'thou' can be used in the phrase "holier-than-thou", and in biblical quotes from the King James Version, e.g., "Thou shalt not kill.", but 'Did thou really kill your teacher because of that test?!' would sound strange.
b. using an out-of-date meaning of a word that is still in use:
- example: "Jane was quick last year, but she had a miscarriage." (instead of pregnant)
you might say someone sounds like they 'come from' or are 'straight out of' or 'are stuck in' a time period if they use speech that is dated, such as:
a. from a particular time period or period(s) but not currently in common use; dated or outdated seem to apply:
- example: 'Man, that cat was really square.' (would sound like you're straight out of the 40's :D)
b. or, old-fashioned or outmoded words or speech patterns; more informally, perhaps old-timey:
- example: 'Shall we go out for a night of dancing?' (instead of 'Do you want to go dancing tonight?'); or 'I shall most definitely see that movie!' (instead of 'I will most definitely see that movie!')
as for wooden speech, this would be speech that is "awkward or stiff : not having or showing any emotion, energy, etc.")
- which would include a person's demeanor, tone, etc. and is harder to give an example for. One type of example could be avoiding contractions I think, but this covers quite a bit of territory.
- another word might be stilted; which is a synonym for awkward "especially because of being too formal", MWO also gives pompous lofty formal and (again) stiff.
- purple is another word along these lines; or fancy, however fancy would not necessarily be negative. encountered in writing, it's called purple prose
- along these same lines would be speech that is flowery or elegant; this usually wouldn't have such a negative connotation, however;
as for a word meaning, specifically, errors due to someone directly translating their language when it's not appropriate, I'm not sure if I can think of a specific word that would apply in all cases, but I see a few cases/possibilities:
a. when the listener finds the speech to be pleasant or attractive in some way, they might be said to find the speech exotic (e.g. 'I think that French girl really sounds exotic!.')
b. for the examples you give such as "Where you go?" or "I not work." I would probably use one of the more generic words I gave up top; foreign or foreign-sounding is probably what I would choose in these cases...
b. and finally, there's when someone tries to directly translate an idiom of their language into another. I'm not sure that there is a specific word; in cases where there's absolutely no relation between the direct translation and the meaning, you might say it's incomprehensible although that is a more generic term for any language you can't understand.
(I think your example about the white horse leg might be an idiom; although I didn't recognize it. The direct translation I would choose would likely be 'the white horse's leg', although 'the leg of the white horse' might work as well; although that could end up sounding stilted depending on context.)
Well, I think that's everything I have to offer on this; hope it helps!
I personally recommend using Merriam-Webster online when trying to learn English; it has great things like 'Usage' paragraphs on controversial uses of words, synonym paragraphs comparing and contrasting different shades of meaning and connotation between various words meaning approximately the same thing (see for example, famous which I used in examples above), notes on dialectical usage, including notating differences between American and British english, and I know there are those that disagree but I find it to have concise, easy-to-understand definitions, and (although possibly due to having used it since I was very young) I find it easier to navigate.
Also, I'm not sure if the online edition has this but I know the editions I have owned have a pronunciation guide that is interesting: rather than directly referencing phonemes like in IPA, it gives them in relation to other words, with the intent that the sounds be referenced relative to speakers with similar accents. I see the benefits of IPA also, but it kind of neat how you can capture so many different accents and pronunciations using a single key this way.