There is no 'rule' covering this, only atomic idioms. Looking at your three examples:
(i) In front of X is what some grammarians call a “complex preposition” because the entire phrase acts like a preposition meaning “(spatially) before X”—in fact, in front of has almost entirely replaced before in this sense in US vernacular.
In the front of X is a entirely different matter: this is a prepositional phrase headed by in, which takes the noun phrase the front as its object; of X is another prepositional phrase modifying front. For instance:
The living room is in the front of the house. ... that is, inside the house, in its forward part facing the street.
You'll find the letter in the front of the second drawer. ... that is, inside the drawer, in the part closest to you as you draw it out.
(ii) In case of X is similarly distinguished from in the case of X. In case of X, without the, in case of is a fixed phrase (complex preposition) meaning “in the event of X” or “if X happens”—in your example, “if need arises”. Again, in the case of X is an ordinary preopositional phrase followed by another prepositional phrase modifying the object, case, a noun meaning “instance” or “circumstances” or “matter”:
In the case of the South Tirol, things fell out quite differently than in Czechoslovakia.
(iii) In The biography of Albert Einstein, biography is an ordinary noun modified by an ordinary prepositional phrase.