Just to make sure: isn't this an erroneously structured sentence?
In addition to conjugation, transformation and transduction, other less well recognised mechanisms of DNA uptake occur in nature, while other mechanisms of HGT are probably yet to be elucidated, in particular, DNA uptake by eukaryotes:
Vesicle-mediated translocation by a range of gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrheae, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can bud off vesicle structures that contain genetic material (e.g.antibiotic resistance and virulence genes) and then fuse with another bacterium (Dorward et al., 1989; Kadurugamuwa and Beveridge, 1997; Yaron et al., 2000).
(From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese)
As I understand, it's the vesicles (that have genetic material) that fuse with another bacterium - but the sentence makes it look like it's the bacteria that fuses with another bacterium.
And why it's plural "bacteria" in the first instance but singular "bacterium" in the second? Maybe this implies that after all it's bacteria that fuses bacteria... but why mention vesicles then..
In short, I'm uncertain which verb phrases does the conjunction and unite, and which it should unite.
If the union is "contain and then fuse", this seems illogical, since "contain" is not a verb denoting action, like "fuse". "Contain" seems to carry the sense "have" in this excerpt, and this does not combine with "fuse", IMHO.
(asked a parallel question at Biology SE)