I've been searching websites looking for an informal way to talk about one's results in such events as long/high jump, 100 metres if one is not a professional athlete but e.g. took part in the school sports day. Is it possible to use the verb "do" as in "I did ... metres in the long jump" or "I did ... seconds in the 100 metres"? Does that sound natural or you need a more concrete verb like 'leap' or 'run'?
I agree with the comment made by shin: In informal speech, you can indeed use did.
In the context you ask about, one other verb you could use informally is made:
How did you do on field day?
I did 1.2 meters in the long jump, and made 12.1 seconds in the 100-meter dash.
In this context, the verbs made and did are being used as as synonym for achieved.
You can also use did in the sense of participated in, meaning you could use did even if you don't include the time or distance in your sentence:
What did you do on field day?
I did the 100 meters and the long jump.