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Does it mean "keep a pledge/promise". Or it means "stand beside the pledge"? If so ,it might be something like a metaphor..

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    Both. Because it is a metaphor. If I stand beside you through thick and thin, feast and famine; if I stand beside you on the field of battle when we meet the enemy; if I stand beside you no matter what, then I am faithful to you. I am loyal to you. To stand beside a pledge, I keep that pledge faithfully. – Dan Bron Sep 26 '15 at 11:55
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The Merriam-Webster has three meanings for stand by:

1: to be or remain loyal or true to
I stand by my promise.
He stood by a friend.

2: to be present
We stood by and watched the fight.

3: to be or get ready to act
I'll stand by to help.

Since plegde is very similar to promise, the first sense fits best. So your guess expressed in

Does it mean "keep a pledge/promise"?

is correct.

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