Yes, the first two are interchangeable. Both of them are slightly old-fashioned ways to say "I married her".
And yes, the third one could possibly be interchangeable with the others, but it's unlikely, and has a very different meaning.
This interpretation relies on another meaning of "to take [something] for"/"to take [something] to be". These can mean "to believe or assume [something] to be". As this is often used when the belief/assumption turns out to be wrong, "mistook" could be used instead of "took" to make it clearer to the listener that it was wrong.
Example in context:
I was so embarrassed yesterday. I walked up to a woman that I took to be my wife and put my hand on her shoulder, but when she turned around, it was someone else with the same hairstyle!
("Mistook" would be equally correct.)
However, without such a context, most people would understand "took to be my wife" as meaning "married", probably because of the similarities to traditional wedding vows that StoneyB's answer mentioned.