In the movie titled 'The King's Speech', Lionel says,
"I'll stake you. Pay me back next time."
Isn't it "I'll stake for you" instead of "I'll stake you"?
I think "I'll stake you" is grammatically wrong.
Am I correct?
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It's grammatically fine.
Stake (verb): give financial or other support to. (source: Oxford Dictionaries)
I'll stake you is correct and idiomatic. Stake, in this sense, is a transitive verb which requires an object, the person staked.
You does, as you understand, play the Beneficiary role here—the “stake” which you need is provided to you, for your benefit. If it helps, you may consider you to be the Indirect Object, since that is with most verbs the syntactic function associated with the Beneficiary role. But that role must be expressed, and it must be expressed as an object; it may not be expressed with a preposition phrase.
The Theme role, however—any specification of the “stake”—is optional, and it can be expressed either as a Direct Object or with a preposition phrase:
He staked me.
He staked me a thousand bucks. He staked me (to) a thousand bucks.
Note that in a different sense, that of “risk” or “wager”, stake takes an obligatory Theme, expressed as a Direct Object, with an optional Goal argument expressed with an on preposition phrase:
He staked his entire fortune on the company's success.