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She (certainly has or has certainly) gone up in my estimation since she told the manager what she thought of him.

Should 'certainly' be used before or after 'has'?

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    In that instance, like in many similar ones, it doesn't matter, IMHO. Oct 4, 2015 at 14:56
  • These words can be arranged variously - Certainly, she has gone up, She has certainly gone up [since], She certainly has gone up [since] Oct 4, 2015 at 15:06

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It doesn't matter. The meaning doesn't change. Certainly is a substitution for 'Definitely'. Alternatively,

  1. She definitely has gone up..

  2. She has definitely gone up..

In both these sentences, your 'estimation' of the subject has gone up and you're sure about that. Either of these sentences convey the same meaning.

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  • I was given this sentence in an exam with the question, spot the error in the sentence and the error was in these words only "has certainly or certainly has". Dec 10, 2015 at 18:17

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