Nor was he the first person to be remembered more as the name of his code than as himself.
I think this sentence's main idea is: he is not first person whose name of his code famous than himself. But why use as…as?
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Let me parse: (parts separated with pipes)
|Nor was he the first person *| to be remembered more | as the name of his code | than | as himself |*.
The structure is essentially:
to be remembered more as X than as Y
"as... as" isn't the structure. It is a comparative "X than Y" construction. The two "as" words link the remembered to X and Y.
That "than" is a comparative conjunction, to compare how well-remembered the name was in one aspect (as X), compared to another.