It's perfectly OK to end a sentence on a preposition; but if you want to embed this statement in a fairly formal piece of writing you may write
... from which Jesus came.
(Note that you cannot use that as the immediate object of the preposition from.)
Jewish is the nation, however, is not acceptable English, because Jewish is an adjective, like French or Chinese or English itself. Those can be employed as nominals when they name a language or a people, but you can't even do that with Jewish: the language is Hebrew and the people are the Jews.
What you can say here will depend on what you want to say—and what you want to avoid saying. Nation does not mean the same thing in 1st century contexts that it does today. You probably don't want a territorial designation (Judaea, Palestine, Galilee); ethnically or religiously you're probably safest saying The Jews are the people from which/whom Jesus sprang; anything else (Israel, Judah, David, Abraham) is going to get you tied up in historical and theological controversy.