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Fireflies very similar to those we see today have been found fossilised in rocks which were formed about 30 million years ago, and their ancestors were probably glowing long before then.

I am guessing the word glowing here, which probably means that fireflies' ancestors appear or exist long before 30 million years ago. However, I am not sure about this because there is no such meaning in either Cambridge or Oxford dictionaries. While the other meanings from the dictionaries do not make sense to me.

What does the word "glowing" mean?

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To glow means to produce a dull, steady light. That sentence means that the ancestors of fireflies produced their typical light earlier than 30 million years ago; in other words, they already existed 30 million years ago.

Glow doesn't mean appear or exist; the firefly's ancestors glowing earlier than 30 million years ago implies they already existed at that time. It is like saying that the ancestors of grey kangaroo were jumping since Pliocene; it means that ancestors of grey kangaroo existed in the Pliocene.

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To augment @kiamlaluno's answer, while it's possible that the only intended meaning here was simply "fireflies probably existed more than 30 million years ago", I get the impression that this may have an additional meaning. Consider this possible paraphrasing:

"Fireflies very similar to those we see today have been found fossilized in rocks which were formed about 30 million years ago, and their ancestors had probably developed the ability to glow long before then."

I think it's conceivable that the point in this sentence was not just that fireflies as we know them existed a long time ago, but rather that glowing insects in general had evolved a long time ago. We need more context to know for sure, but it makes sense to me that the emphasis on glowing was not just a clever metaphor for existing, but a reference to the development of the ability to glow by ancient, ancestral insects.

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