I have this sentence:
What does the temple have outside? ~ It has many gateways with carved figures.
As you can see, I want to ask about things outside the temple. Is it correct if I put "outside" in that place?
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First, to answer your question, I agree, you can have the adverb "outside" in the question.
However, I think the issue here is verb usage.
Compare and contrast:
What is outside the gateway of Sanchi Stupa? There are beautifully-decorated gateways with carved figures.
What does the gateway of Sanchi Stupa have outside? It has beautifully decorated gateways with carved figures.
I teach English in Taiwan and it is very common for Mandarin-speaking learners of English to use "to have" (or even "there have" :D!) to mean "there is/there are."
Not their fault, just a literal translation from Mandarin and a misunderstanding of the multiple meanings of the word "there" :).
I suspect that this is the case, as well, here.
I suspect that "...does...have outside" is forced on the question because the original answer has "...has...."
In my re-wording of the question and answer, there is no issue of where to the put the word "outside." It becomes very obvious because we use "is."
I have a feeling your grasp of English is quite good for you to even consider asking if you can insert the adverb at the end, but if you'd like more information, you may:
See here for what I mean: http://www.grammar.cl/Present/ThereIsThereAre.htm. "Meaning: To say that something exists (or doesn't exist)." In this case, your "beautifully-decorated gateways with carved figures."
And here for even more detail: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns/it-and-there. See "there" > "to say where something is." Again, the gateways with carved figures.