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Which can I use for the verb tense for a picture taken in the past in an article

In fact, the images shown in Figure 1 and 2 were/are/have been taken from the bottom view of the grates.

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Present Perfect works best in such situations.

If you were talking about the mechanisms of taking those pictures, then you could use Past Indefinite, because that would be justified by the context:

... the images... were taken from the ...

But since the taking of the images is not the topic of the paragraph, there is no reason to draw attention to the way they were taken or to the time at which they were taken, and only important part is that they are here, presented for the reader to view:

... the images... have been taken from the...

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In fact, the images shown in Figure 1 and 2 were taken from the bottom view of the grates.

Use the past tense, since you are only referring to Figure 1 and 2, and they were already taken since you can see the images.

Cases where you could use the others:

Satellite images are taken from a circular orbit.

This is a generalization of a present action.

We have been taking photos of zoo animals all day.

Happening in the past and at the present time.

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