When someone asks me, where do you go to school, are they asking for the address of the school that I attend?
There is a distinct difference between American and British dialects of English here. In British English, "school" implicitly excludes university or college education.
As a user of British English, if I were asked where I went to school, I would respond with the name of my secondary school. If I believed that the listener would not know of my secondary school, I might give general information (eg. "I went to school in my home town")
If I were at university and was asked "Where do you go to school" I would explain that I don't go to school any more, instead I go to university.
As always, context is everything. The questioner wants to know about my place of education. What information I would give would depend on what I believed them to want. Often that would be the school's name, but only rarely would I think that a full postal address was expected.