For your example #1, the only correct version is to use "liked". The sentence refers to how you felt yesterday. It does not include how you feel today.
For example #2, the only correct usage is "felt". Again, because you are referring to a past time. However, in this example, you could use either "like" or "liked". The meaning of the sentence could change, depending on which you used. To use "liked" in this sentence could be used as a double-entendre, or to hide your current emotional state. It is a pretty subtle thing - so your listener would need to be alert to such possible meanings. It could also be a "diplomatic" way of informing someone that your current feelings have changed. Also, the #2 sentence does not indicate that you like or used to like the person - since you only mention that you like(d) your "feelings yesterday". It could be applied if you were very angry with the person, but liked that anger!
Your alternate usage is perfect. So, to answer your question:
Are these distinctions correct?
No, the distinctions in the first 2 examples are not correct. However, it appears to me that in the alternate version you have realized that to express the "like" action over time, you need to change your sentence structure slightly, to indicate that "this was true then, and it is also true now".