4

I mean such general questions as

  • How did the Universe form?
  • How will it evolve?
  • How did the life origin?
  • etc.

These have been mind-boggling questions, that are only now gathering enough observational ground to be scientifically-answerable. And what do you call that? (an adjective or even better a noun)

4

A question that has not yet been answered is usually called an open question, an open problem, or an unsolved question. These do not necessarily refer to fundamental scientific issues - you could use them to describe any problem or question without a known solution - but you can use them for scientific questions.

Examples and references:

Open problem, Wikipedia

"Welcome to the Open Problem Garden, a collection of unsolved problems in mathematics."

Republican debate leaves Trump an open question

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