Is the following sentence grammatical?
This is because of your computer not being connected to the Internet.
If this is not, what's the proper structure for using
verb + ing after
of (especially "because of")?
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In this case, you'd be better off saying one of the following:
This is because your computer is not connected to the Internet.
This is due to your computer not being connected to the Internet.
The first sentence simplifies the point and removes potential grammar mistakes.
This page has a breakdown explaining the difference between the word pairs "because of" and "due to" which helps in the second example. Basically, "because of" grew up as an adverb & "due to" grew up as an adjective. "This" is then the noun modified by the prepositional phrase.